In the previous Understand Django article, we learned about the structure of a Django application and how apps are the core components of a Django project. In this article, we’re going to dig into Django’s built-in user authentication system. We’ll see how Django makes your life easier by giving you tools to help your web application interact with the users of your site.
- From Browser To Django
- URLs Lead The Way
- Views On Views
- Templates For User Interfaces
- User Interaction With Forms
- Store Data With Models
- Administer All The Things
- Anatomy Of An Application
- User Authentication
- Middleware Do You Go?
- Serving Static Files
- Test Your Apps
- Deploy A Site Live
- Per-visitor Data With Sessions
Authentication And Authorization
We need to start with some terms before we begin our study. When your project interacts with users, there are two primary aspects tightly coupled to users that we must consider.
Authentication: When a user tries to prove that they are who they say they are, that is authentication. A user will typically authenticate with your site via some login form or using a social provider like Google to verify their identity.
Authentication can only prove that you are you.
Authorization: What is a user allowed to do? Authorization answers that question. We use authorization to determine what permissions or groups a user belongs to, so that we can scope what a user can do on the site.
Authorization determines what you can do.
The Django auth system covers both of these topics. Sometimes the software industry will shorten authentication to “authn” and authorization to “authz,” but I think those labels are fairly silly and confusing. I will call out topics by their full name and refer to the entire Django system as “auth.”
If you used the
to begin your project,
and can move on!
The auth features in Django require a couple of built-in Django applications and a couple of middleware classes.
The Django apps are:
authapp depends on)
The middleware classes are:
SessionMiddlewareto store data about a user in a session
AuthenticationMiddlewareto associate users with requests
Middleware and sessions are both future topics so consider them internal details that you can ignore for now.
The Django docs provide additional context about these pre-requisites so check out the auth topic installation section for more details.
If your site is going to have any level of personalization for anyone who uses it, then we need some way to track identity.
In the Django auth system,
identity is tracked
This model stores information
that you’d likely want
with anyone who uses your site.
The model includes:
- name fields,
- email address,
- datetime fields for when a user joins or logs in to your site,
- boolean fields for some coarse permissions that are very commonly needed,
- and password data.
User model is a critically important model
in many systems.
Unless you’re creating a website
that is entirely public data
and has no need
to factor in identity,
then you will probably use the
User model heavily.
Even if you don’t expect your site’s visitors
in some fashion,
you’ll still probably benefit
because it is integrated
with the Django admin site.
in Administer All The Things
that we needed a user
with certain permissions
to access the admin,
but we glossed over the details
of what that meant.
The admin will only permit users
is_staff attribute set
is_staff is one of the boolean fields
that I listed
in the default
User model implementation.
Now we have an understanding
User model is a very important model
in a Django site.
the model is important as you use the Django admin,
but it can also be very important
for the people
that come to your site.
let’s look a bit deeper
and how that works
Authenticating With Passwords
Like many other websites that you’ve used, Django’s built-in auth system authenticates users with passwords.
When a user wants to authenticate,
the user must log in
to the site.
Django includes a
LoginView class-based view
that can handle the appropriate steps.
LoginView is a form view that:
- Collects the
passwordfrom the user
- Calls the
django.contrib.auth.authenticatefunction with the
passwordto confirm that the user is who they claim to be
- Redirects to either a path that is set
as the value of the
nextparameter in the URL’s querystring or
nextparameter isn’t set
- Or, if authentication failed, re-renders the form page with appropriate error messages
How does the
authenticate function work?
authenticate function delegates the responsibility
if the user’s credentials are valid
to an authentication backend.
Like we have seen
and with databases,
the auth system has swappable backends.
With different backend options,
you can have multiple ways
authenticate function will loop through any auth backends
that are set
AUTHENTICATION_BACKENDS list setting.
Each backend can do one of three things:
- Authenticate correctly with the user and return a
- Not authenticate and return
None. In this case, the next backend is tried.
- Not authenticate and raise a
PermissionDeniedexception. In this case, no other backends are tried.
You could add a backend to that setting that lets people authenticate with their social media accounts (django-allauth is a great option to do exactly that). You might be in a corporate setting and need Single Sign-On (SSO) for your company. There are backend options that enable that too.
Although there are many options,
on the built-in backend
included with the auth system.
The default backend is called the
and it is in the
ModelBackend is named as it is
because it uses the
from the user,
the backend compares the provided data
to any existing
authenticate function calls the
that exists on the
The backend does a lookup
based on the given
username passed to the method
If the user record exists,
the backend calls
password is the actual password
that is supplied
by the person
who submitted the POST
Django doesn’t store actual passwords.
To do so would be a major weakness
in the framework
because any leak
of the database would leak all users passwords.
And that’s totally not cool.
stores a hash
of the password.
Maybe you’ve never encountered hashing before. A hash is a computed value that is generated by running input data through a special function. The details of the computation is a very deep topic, especially when considering security, but the important thing to know about hashes is that you can’t reverse the computation.
In other words,
if you generated a hash
then you wouldn’t be able
to take the hash value
and figure out that the original input was
Why is this useful?
By computing hashes,
Django can safely store
that computed value
without compromising a user’s password.
When a user wants to authenticate
with a site,
the user submits a password,
Django computes the hash
on that submitted value
and compares it to the hash stored
in the database.
If the hashes match,
then the site can conclude
that the user sent the correct password.
Only the password’s hash
would match the hash stored
Hashing is a fascinating subject. If you want to learn more about the guts of how Django manages hashes, I would suggest reading the Password management in Django docs to see the details.
That’s a lot of stuff to do for authentication!
Is Django going to expect you to call the
and wire together all the views yourself?
I mentioned the
but that’s not the only view
that Django provides
to make authentication manageable.
You can add the set of views
with a single
# project/urls.py from django.urls import include, path urlpatterns = [ ... path("accounts/", include("django.contrib.auth.urls")), ]
This set includes a variety of features.
- A login view
- A logout view
- Views to change a password
- Views to reset a password
If you choose to add this set,
your job is to override the built-in templates
to match the styling
of your site.
to customize the login view,
you would create a file named
in your templates directory.
The All authentication views
documentation provides information
about each view
and the name of each template
If you have more complex needs for your site, you might want to consider some external Django applications that exist in the ecosystem. I personally like django-allauth. The project is very customizable and provides a path to add social authentication to sign up with your social media platform of choice. I also like django-allauth because it includes sign up flows that you don’t have to build yourself. The application is definitely worth checking out.
We’ve now seen how Django authenticates users
to a website
and the built-in authentication backend,
We’ve also seen how Django provides views
with login, logout, and password management.
Once a user is authenticated, what is that user allowed to do? We’ll see that next as we explore authorization in Django.
Authorization From User Attributes
Django has multiple ways to let you control what a user is allowed to do on your site.
The simplest form
on a user
is to check
if the site has identified the user or not.
Before a user is authenticated
by logging in,
that user is anonymous.
the Django auth system has a special class
to represent this kind
of anonymous user.
Sticking to the principle
of least surprise,
the class is called
User model includes an
users that have authenticated will return
AnonymousUser instances return
for the same attribute.
Django provides a
that can use this
The decorator will gate any view
that needs a user to be authenticated.
This may be the appropriate level
of authorization check
if you have an application
that restricts who is allowed
to log in.
if you’re running a Software as a Service (SaaS) application
that requires users
to pay a subscription
to use the product,
then you may have sufficient authorization checking
In that scenario,
if your application only permits users
with an active subscription
(or a trial subscription)
to log in,
login_required will guard against any non-paying users
from using your product.
There are other boolean values
that you can use for authorization checking.
is_staffis a boolean to decide whether a user is a staff member or not. By default, this boolean is
False. Only staff-level users are allowed to use the built-in Django admin site. You can also use the
staff_member_requireddecorator if you have views that should only be used by members of your team with that permission.
is_superuseris a special flag to indicate a user that should have access to everything. This “superuser” concept is very similar to the superuser that is present in Linux permission systems. There’s no special decorator for this boolean, but you could use the
user_passes_testdecorator if you had very private views that you needed to protect.
from django.contrib.admin.views.decorators import staff_member_required from django.contrib.auth.decorators import user_passes_test from django.http import HttpResponse @staff_member_required def a_staff_view(request): return HttpResponse("You are a user with staff level permission.") def check_superuser(user): return user.is_superuser @user_passes_test(check_superuser) def special_view(request): return HttpResponse("Super special response")
user_passes_test decorator behaves much
but it accepts a callable
that receives a user object
and returns a boolean.
If the boolean value is
the request is permitted
and the user gets the response.
If the boolean value is
the user will be redirected
to the login page.
Authorization From Permissions And Groups
The first set of checks
that we looked at is data
that is stored
User model record.
While that works well
for some cases
that apply to many sites,
what about authorization
on what your application does?
Django comes with a flexible permission system
that can let your application control
who can see what.
The permission system includes some convenient auto-created permissions
as well as the ability to make custom permission
for whatever purpose.
These permission records are
Permission model instances
Any time you create a new model,
Django will create an additional set of permissions.
These auto-created permissions map
to the Create, Read, Update, and Delete (CRUD) operations
that you can expect to use
in the Django admin.
if you have a
and create a
Django would create the following permissions:
A big reason to create these permissions is to aid your development
and add control to the Django admin.
Staff-level users (i.e.,
user.is_staff == True)
in your application have no permissions
to start with.
This is a safe default
so that any new staff member cannot access all
of the data
in your system
unless you grant them more permissions
as you gain trust
When a staff user logs into the Django admin,
they will initially see very little.
As permissions are granted
to the user’s account,
the Django admin will reveal additional information corresponding
to the selected permissions.
Although permissions are often granted
User admin page,
you can add permissions
to a user
User model has a
that associates user instances
to particular permissions.
Continuing with the pizza application example, perhaps you work with a chef for your pizza app. Your chef may need the ability to control any new toppings that should be available to customers, but you probably don’t want the chef to be able to delete orders from the application’s history.
For the chef,
you’d grant the
but you’d leave out
from django.contrib.auth.models import Permission, User from django.contrib.contenttypes.models import ContentType from pizzas.models import Topping content_type = ContentType.objects.get_for_model(Topping) permission = Permission.objects.get( content_type=content_type, codename="add_topping") chef_id = 42 chef = User.objects.get(id=42) chef.user_permissions.add(permission)
We haven’t covered the
so this code may look unusual
but the auth system uses content types
as a way
to reference models generically
when handling permissions.
You can learn more about content types
and their uses
at the contenttypes framework
The important point
to observe from the example
is that permissions behave
like any other Django model.
Adding permissions to individuals users is a nice feature for a small team, but if your team grows, it could devolve into a nightmare.
Let’s suppose that your application is wildly successful, and you need to hire a large support staff to help with customer issues. If your support team needs to view certain models in your system, it would be a total pain if you had to manage that per staff member.
Django has an ability to create groups
to alleviate this problem.
Group model is the intersection
between a set of permissions
and a set of users.
you could create a group
like “Support Team,”
assign all the permissions
that such a team should have,
and include all your support staff
on that team.
any time that the support staff members require a new permission,
it can be added once
to the group.
A user’s groups are tracked
from django.contrib.auth.models import Group, User support_team = Group.objects.get(name="Support Team") support_sally = User.objects.get(username="sally") support_sally.groups.add(support_team)
In addition to the built-in permissions that Django creates and the group management system, you can create additional permissions for your own purposes.
Let’s give our chef permission to bake pizzas in our imaginary app.
from django.contrib.auth.models import Permission, User from django.contrib.contenttypes.models import ContentType from pizzas.models import Pizza content_type = ContentType.objects.get_for_model(Pizza) permission = Permission.objects.create( codename="can_bake", name="Can Bake Pizza", content_type=content_type, ) chef_id = 42 chef = User.objects.get(id=42) chef.user_permissions.add(permission)
To check on the permission in our code,
you can use the
has_perm expects an application label
and the permission codename
by a period.
>>> chef = User.objects.get(id=42) >>> chef.has_perm('pizzas.can_bake') True
You can also use a decorator
on a view
to check a permission as well.
The decorator will check the
for the proper permission.
# pizzas/views.py from django.contrib.auth.decorators import permission_required @permission_required('pizzas.can_bake') def bake_pizza(request): # Time to bake the pizza if you're allowed. ...
Working With Users In Views And Templates
Now we’ve discussed how to authenticate users and how to check their authorization. How do we interact with users in your application code?
The first way is inside of views.
Part of configuring the auth system is to include the
This middleware has one job
in request processing:
user attribute to the
that the view will receive.
This middleware gives us very clean
and convenient access
to the user record.
# application/views.py from django.http import HttpResponse def my_view(request): if request.user.is_authenticated: return HttpResponse('You are logged in.') else: return HttpResponse('Hello guest!')
AuthenticationMiddleware is what makes it possible
for the decorators
that I’ve described in this article
Each of the decorators finds the
as an attribute attached to the
How about templates? If you had to add a user to a view’s context for every view, that would be tedious.
there is a context processor
that let’s you avoid that pain
(the processor is in
The context processor will add a
to the context
of every view
when processing a request.
Recall that a context processor is a function
that receives a
and returns a dictionary
that will be merged
into the context.
can you guess how this context processor works?
If you guessed
you get a cookie! 🍪
Since the middleware adds the
the context processor has the very trivial job
of creating a dictionary
There’s a bit more to the actual implementation,
and you can check out the
Django source code
if you want to see those details.
Now you’ve seen how Django leverages the auth middleware to make users easily accessible to your views and templates.
In this article, we got into Django’s built-in user auth system.
We learned about:
- How auth is set up
- What the
- How authentication works
- Django’s built-in views for making a login system
- What levels of authorization are available
- How to access users in views and templates
Next time we’ll study middleware in Django. As the name implies, middleware is some code that exists in the “middle” of the request and response process. We will learn about:
- The mental model for considering middleware
- How to write your own middleware
- Some of the middleware classes that comes with Django
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